History lesson about the oldest urban settlement in Europe, medieval fortress on Danube, archaeological site of Roman city – Viminacium, million years old mammoth and breathtaking view of longest gorge in Europe is a must see!
Smederevo – port and industrial town – receives many visitors because of its outstanding fortress. Smederevo fortress is remarkable for the sheer scale of its defences and for its state of preservation. Smederevo was a Roman settlement on the route from Singidunum to Viminacium. In 1427. when Hungarians took over Belgrade again, it became the new Serbian capital.
The Roman city of Viminacium used to stand close to what is now the small town of Kostolac. Viminacium was the capital of the Roman province of Moesia Superior and was rebuilt by Justinian I after being destroyed by Huns in 440. In the late 6th century, the city was destroyed again and for all by Avar raiders. Today, the archaeological site contains remains of temples, streets, squares, amphitheatres, palaces, hippodromes and Roman baths.
Golubac Fortress was built by the Hungarians, called Galambocz, on the same site as the Roman Castrum Columbarum. Golubac was captured by the Turks in 1391. and changed ownership several times before being finally reclaimed by the Serbs in 1867.
The Iron Gate
The Djerdap National Park is known as the “Iron Gates National Park” . A reference to the old Roman name, Porta Ferea, which was used to describe the narrowing limestone cliffs above the Danube river. The park’s most noteworthy feature is the Djerdap Gorge (the famous Iron Gate) itself. Djerdap Gorge stretches for well over 100 km in a boomerang shape, from Golubac to Tekija, forming the longest composite valley in whole Europe. At one point one of the greatest river depths in the world has been measured (82 m).
The early settlement of Lepenski Vir was first uncovered in 1965. during one of the exploratory digs that preceded the building of the Djerdap Dam. The site was excavated in the following year, and in 1967. the distinctive stone sculptures were discovered. The sculptures, mostly stylised life-size heads, are quite remarkable and appear to show human faces with the lips of fish. The carvings date back as far as about 5350 years B.C and are the oldest Mesolithic sculptures in all Europe.
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